A common question that concerns can anyone is:
How many people play chess in the world?
According to various effective polls, the 70% of adults has played chess some time during their life! The chess players make up one of the largest communities worldwide, whose number exceeds 605 million. Of course, no one can answer for sure how many people play chess because it is not possible to enumerate all, because not everyone actively participates in competitions and not register in the World Chess Federation.
World Chess Championship
The World Chess Championship held for the election of the World Champion in chess. Claiming the title is possible by players regardless of gender. Also, there is a separate organization for women only, which gives the title of "World Chess Champion". There are separate championships for respective titles in various age categories, but in categories involving only chess computer programs. Apart from these programs, all other (regardless of age) have the right to claim higher class titles.
World Champions in Chess
Chess is a constantly evolving process, and this is mainly due to some players who "put their own signature" in the years lived. Among the many million people, there were always some who stood out and some who managed to conquer the World Title in Chess!
1. Stainitz Wilhelm (1886-1894)
2. Emanuel Lasker (1894-1921)
3. José Raúl Capablanca (1921-1927)
4. Alexander Alekhine (1927-1935 and 1937-1946)
- Max Euwe(1935-1937)
6. Michael Botvinik (1948-1957 and 1958-1960 and 1961-1963)
- Mikhail Tal(1960-1961)
9. Tigran Petrosian (1963-1969)
10. Boris Spassky (1969-1972)
11. Robert James Fischer (1972-1975)
12. Anatoly Karpov (1975 to 1985)
13. Garry Kasparov (1985-1993 and 1993-2000)
The 1993 crisis
The 1993 is a defining moment in the history of chess. Until that time there was the candidates tournament. Top chess players can participate on that tournament. The winner of the tournament gained the right to claim the upper crown in chess. That is, acquire the right to play a match for the World Champion.
A new idea was born; in order to make chess more spectacular and give more chances to anyone win the World Champion’s title. So the World Chess Federation (FIDE) wanted to impose a different racing system which involved more than 100 players in knockout competitions. These games were shorter on time. If the normal games ended in a draw, then Rapid or blitz games will decide the final outcome of the match!
Many believed that this system was not the most objective to choose the best player in the world. At the other hand, this new model relegates the title of World Champion. Not surprisingly therefore, many top players leave the World Chess Federation. Starting from Gary Kasparov, he founded Professional Chess Association (PCA) and he pulls over a lot of top grandmasters. So from 1993 we have two World Champions, one from FIDE and one from PLC.
World Champions FIDE (1993 - 2006)
1. Anatoly Karpov (1993 to 1999)
3. Viswanathan Anand (2000 to 2002
4. Ruslan Ponomariov (2002-2004)
5. Rustam Kasimtzanov (2004-2005
6. Veselin Topalov (2005 to 2006)
The reunion of 2006!
This long conflict finally resolved in October 2006, after 13 years, with the reunion match Kramnik-Topalov in Elista, Russia. It is the first World Chess Championship, which I had watched live from my computer.
It was 12 rounds match. The Kramnik won the first two games, followed by two draws. On the rest day Silvio Danailov, Topoelov’s manager, issued a press release, which threatened to disrupt the event. Bulgarians complained looking videos found that after each move Kramnik went to the rest room and straight to the toilet. They noted that he had visited the toilet for more than 50 times. We should note here that the toilet haven’t surveillance camera. Unlike Kramnik, Topalov passed the most time on the board, as is normal for chess player do.
So the organizers felt reasonably requests the Bulgarian team and decided that both players have a common toilet.
The team Kramnik reacted strongly to the request of Topalov, saying that it can not intervene in private life the Russian chess player. So Kramnik didn’t go to play in the fifth game and lost without a fight.
There was a mess, the match has been postponed and it seemed that it would be exploded in the air. The president of FIDE traveled to Elista to solve the incident. Finally after intense negotiations we reached an agreement and the games will be continued. The members of the protest committee were replaced, both players will have their own separate toilet and Kramnik will lose its fifth game without a fight.
The Topalov won the eighth game and the match led to the "tie break", ie rapid chess games. The Kramnik finally managed to win and thus became the 14th World Champion. After this episode, even today in 2015, these two players do not shake their hands when playing. The Russians have banned Topalov from Russian territory and both players avoid state involvement in the same top tournament. The top tournaments in the world are not numerous and therefore sometimes they cannot avoid each other. Their matches are exciting and full of intensity, because both players play for win!
14. Vladimir Kramnik (2000-2006 and 2006-2007)
- Viswanathan Anand(2007 to 2013)
- Magnus Carlsen(2013 to